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Flag 1: American Flag

Flag 2: State Of New Jersey

Flag 2: State Of New Jersey

Third State
Flag Adopted 1896, Amended 1928

Date Admitted: 1787
State Capital: Trenton
State Motto: "Liberty And Prosperity"
Nickname: The Garden State
State Song: "Northern Red Oak"
State Flower: Violet
State Tree: Red Oak
State Bird: Eastern Gold Finch

General George Washington is responsible for the buff color in this flag as these were the Military colors used by the New Jersey troops during the war of independence. He chose Jersey blue and buff to distinguish his troops from those of the Dutch or Swedes that used blue and orange or blue and yellow. The horse on the shield stands for the state animal. The helmet shows that New Jersey governs itself. The two Goddesses represent the state motto. The goddess on the left is liberty and she is holding a staff with a liberty cap with the word liberty underneath her. The goddess on the right is ceres, goddess of agriculture and she is holding a cornucopia with prosperity written below her. Between them is a blue shield with three plows referring to the nickname the "Garden State". The date 1776 refers to the Revolution in which New Jersey played a prominent part.

Flag 3: Society, Sons Of The Revolution

Flag 3: Society, Sons Of The Revolution

Flag 4: Betsy Ross Flag

Flag 4: Betsy Ross Flag

During the Revolutionary War, several patriots made flags for our new Nation.  Among them were Cornelia Bridges, Elizabeth (Betsy) Ross, and Rebecca Young, all of Pennsylvania, and John Shaw of Annapolis, Maryland.  Although Betsy Ross, the best known of these persons, made flags for 50 years, there is no proof that she made the first Stars and Stripes.  It is known she made flags for the Pennsylvania Navy in 1777.  The flag popularly known as the "Betsy Ross Flag", which arranged the stars in a circle, did not appear until the early 1790's.

Flag 5: Grand Union Flag

Flag 5: Grand Union Flag

The first flag of the colonists to have any resemblance to the present Stars and Stripes. It was first flown by ships of the Colonial Fleet on the Delaware River. On December 3, 1775 it was raised aboard Capt. Esek Hopkin's flagship Alfred by John Paul Jones, then a navy lieutenant. Later the flag was raised on the liberty pole at Prospect Hill, which was near George Washington's headquarters in Cambridge, MA. It was the unofficial national flag on July 4, 1776, Independence Day; and it remained the unofficial national flag and ensign of the Navy until June 14, 1777 when the Continental Congress authorized the Stars and Stripes.

As explained by Adm. George Henry Preble, in his classic work "Origin and History of the American Flag" (Nicholas L. Brown, Philadelphia, 1908), Esek Hopkins was commander-in-chief of the naval forces of the embryonic republic and his pay was set at $125 per month.  Captains were commissioned for each of his ships: the Alfred, Columbus, Andrea Doria, Cabot and Providence.  John Adams, a member of the Marine Committee, explained that the choice of these names with the follow words: Alfred, named in honor of the founder of the greatest navy that ever existed; Columbus, after the discoverer of this quarter of the globe; Cabot, for the discoverer of the northern part of this continent; Andrea Doria, in honor of the great Genovese admiral; and Providence, the name of the town where she was purchased.

The necessity of a common national flag had not been thought of until the appointment of a committee composed of Benjamin Franklin, Messrs. Lynch and Harrison which assembled at camp at Cambridge.  The result of their conference was the rendition of the King's colors (union jack), representing the still-recognized sovereignty of England, but coupled with to thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, emblematic of the union of the thirteen colonies against its tyranny and oppression, in place of the loyal red ensign.

Interestingly, the Grand Union flag was also the standard of the British East India Company. It was only by degrees that the Union Flag of Great Britain was discarded.  The final breach between the Colonies and Great Britain brought about the removal of the Britisn Union from the canton of our striped flag and the substitution of the stars on a blue field.

Flag 6: "Cresent" - Ft Sullivan, SC

Flag 6: "Cresent" - Ft Sullivan, SC

The Crescent Flag, used in the historic defense of Fort Sullivan (now Fort Moultrie, Sullivan's Island, SC, in Charleston Harbor) against the British in June, 1776 by Colonel William Moultrie, was the first American flag used in the South during the American Revolution.

Colonel, later General, Moultrie stated in his memoirs that: "as there was no national flag at the time, I was desired by the Council of Safety (on September 13, 1775, upon the taking of Fort Johnson, on James Island, in the harbor) to have one made; upon which, as the State troops were clothed in blue and the fort was garrisoned by the men of the first and second regiments who wore a silver crescent on the front of their caps, I had a large blue flag made with a crescent in the dexter corner to be uniform with the troops.  This was the first American flag displayed in the South."

Flag 7: Gadsden (Navy) Flag

Flag 7: Gadsden (Navy) Flag

In December, 1775, the Continental Congress provided for the fitting-out of five ships of thirty-two guns, five of twenty-eight guns, and three of twenty-four guns, making thirteen ships in all, to form a navy for the United Colonies; but no provision was made for a naval flag.

John Jay, in a letter dated July, 1776, stated that Congress had made no order "concerning Continental colors, and that captains of the armed vessels had followed their own fancies." He names as one device a rattlesnake rearing its crest and shaking its rattles, and having the motto, "Don't Tread on Me".

De Benvouloir, the emissary of Vergennes, in 1775, reportedto the French minister: "They have given up the English flag and have taken for their device a rattlesnake with thirteen rattles."

The rattlesnake was a favorite device with the Colonists, and its origin as an American emblem is a curious feature of our national history.

Flag 8: Continental Navy

Flag 8: Continental Navy

Flag 9: Washington's Life Guards

Flag 9: Washington's Life Guards

An original is on display at the George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia.  The standard bears an elaborate, delicately painted scene depicting a horse, an officer, a blue standard with a circle or oval of stars, a woman representing the Genius of Liberty supporting a shield of the United States, and a spread eagle.  Above the figures is a yellow-gold scroll with the motto:  "Conquer or Die". The standard dates after 1782 when the shield and eagle were adopted into the seal of the United States.

The Commander-in-Chief's Guard (1777-1783), or "Washington's Life Guard" was a company-sized unit of selected men representing all thirteen states.  It was primarily an infantry unit, although it did include some mounted troops.  Its primary purpose was to guard the person, headquarters, papers and effects of the Commander-in-Chief.

Flag 10:

Flag 10: unknown